400-101 CCIE Routing and Switching Written Exam

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Product Description

Exam Number/Code: 400-101

Exam Name: CCIE Routing and Switching Written Exam

Questions and Answers: 145 Q&As

Version: PDF

Sample: 400-101 CCIE Free Online Test

Product Description

Exam Number: 400-101 CCIE
Associated Certifications: CCIE Routing and Switching
Duration: 120 Minutes (90 – 110 questions)
Available Languages: English
Register: Pearson VUE

Exam Description

The Cisco CCIE Routing and Switching written exam validate that professionals have the expertise to: configure, validate, and troubleshoot complex enterprise network infrastructure; understand how infrastructure components interoperate; and translate functional requirements into specific device configurations.

Exam Topic

1.0 Network Principles 10%

1.1 Network theory
• 1.1.a Describe basic software architecture differences between IOS and IOS XE
o 1.1.a [i] Control plane and Forwarding plane
o 1.1.a [ii] Impact to troubleshooting and performances
o 1.1.a [iii] Excluding specific platform’s architecture
• 1.1.b Identify Cisco express forwarding concepts
o 1.1.b [i] RIB, FIB, LFIB, Adjacency table
o 1.1.b [ii] Load balancing Hash
o 1.1.b [iii] Polarization concept and avoidance
• 1.1.c Explain general network challenges
o 1.1.c [i] Unicast flooding
o 1.1.c [ii] Out of order packets
o 1.1.c [iii] Asymmetric routing
o 1.1.c [iv] Impact of micro burst
• 1.1.d Explain IP operations
o 1.1.d [i] ICMP unreachable, redirect
o 1.1.d [ii] IPv4 options, IPv6 extension headers
o 1.1.d [iii] IPv4 and IPv6 fragmentation
o 1.1.d [iv] TTL
o 1.1.d [v] IP MTU
• 1.1.e Explain TCP operations
o 1.1.e [i] IPv4 and IPv6 PMTU
o 1.1.e [ii] MSS
o 1.1.e [iii] Latency
o 1.1.e [iv] Windowing
o 1.1.e [v] Bandwidth delay product
o 1.1.e [vi] Global synchronization
o 1.1.e [vii] Options
• 1.1.f Explain UDP operations
o 1.1.f [i] Starvation
o 1.1.f [ii] Latency
o 1.1.f [iii] RTP/RTCP concepts
1.2 Network implementation and operation
• 1.2.a Evaluate proposed changes to a network
o 1.2.a [i] Changes to routing protocol parameters
o 1.2.a [ii] Migrate parts of a network to IPv6
o 1.2.a [iii] Routing protocol migration
o 1.2.a [iv] Adding multicast support
o 1.2.a [v] Migrate spanning tree protocol
o 1.2.a [vi] Evaluate impact of new traffic on existing QoS design
1.3 Network troubleshooting
• 1.3.a Use IOS troubleshooting tools
o 1.3.a [i] debug, conditional debug
o 1.3.a [ii] ping, traceroute with extended options
o 1.3.a [iii] Embedded packet capture
o 1.3.a [iv] Performance monitor
• 1.3.b Apply troubleshooting methodologies
o 1.3.b [i] Diagnose the root cause of networking issue [analyze symptoms, identify and describe root cause]
o 1.3.b [ii] Design and implement valid solutions according to constraints
o 1.3.b [iii] Verify and monitor resolution
• 1.3.c Interpret packet capture
o 1.3.c [i] Using Wireshark trace analyzer
o 1.3.c [ii] Using IOS embedded packet capture

2.0 Layer 2 Technologies 15%

2.1 LAN switching technologies
• 2.1.a Implement and troubleshoot switch administration
o 2.1.a [i] Managing MAC address table
o 2.1.a [ii] errdisable recovery
o 2.1.a [iii] L2 MTU
• 2.1.b Implement and troubleshoot layer 2 protocols
o 2.1.b [i] CDP, LLDP
o 2.1.b [ii] UDLD
• 2.1.c Implement and troubleshoot VLAN
o 2.1.c [i] Access ports
o 2.1.c [ii] VLAN database
o 2.1.c [iii] Normal, extended VLAN, voice VLAN
• 2.1.d Implement and troubleshoot trunking
o 2.1.d [i] VTPv1, VTPv2, VTPv3, VTP pruning
o 2.1.d [ii] dot1Q
o 2.1.d [iii] Native VLAN
o 2.1.d [iv] Manual pruning
• 2.1.e Implement and troubleshoot EtherChannel
o 2.1.e [i] LACP, PAgP, manual
o 2.1.e [ii] Layer 2, layer 3
o 2.1.e [iii] Load-balancing
o 2.1.e [iv] Etherchannel misconfiguration guard
• 2.1.f Implement and troubleshoot spanning-tree
o 2.1.f [i] PVST+/RPVST+/MST
o 2.1.f [ii] Switch priority, port priority, path cost, STP timers
o 2.1.f [iii] port fast, BPDUguard, BPDUfilter
o 2.1.f [iv] loopguard, rootguard
• 2.1.g Implement and troubleshoot other LAN switching technologies
o 2.1.g [i] SPAN, RSPAN, ERSPAN
• 2.1.h Describe chassis virtualization and aggregation technologies
o 2.1.h [i] Multichassis
o 2.1.h [ii] VSS concepts
o 2.1.h [iii] Alternative to STP
o 2.1.h [iv] Stackwise
o 2.1.h [v] Excluding specific platform implementation
• 2.1.i Describe spanning-tree concepts
o 2.1.i [i] Compatibility between MST and RSTP
o 2.1.i [ii] STP dispute, STP bridge assurance
2.2 Layer 2 multicast
• 2.2.a Implement and troubleshoot IGMP
o 2.2.a [i] IGMPv1, IGMPv2, IGMPv3
o 2.2.a [ii] IGMP snooping
o 2.2.a [iii] IGMP querier
o 2.2.a [iv] IGMP filter
o 2.2.a [v] IGMP proxy
• 2.2.b Explain MLD
• 2.2.c Explain PIM snooping
2.3 Layer 2 WAN circuit technologies
• 2.3.a Implement and troubleshoot HDLC
• 2.3.b Implement and troubleshoot PPP
o 2.3.b [i] Authentication [PAP, CHAP]
o 2.3.b [ii] PPPoE
o 2.3.b [iii] MLPPP
• 2.3.c Describe WAN rate-based ethernet circuits
o 2.3.c [i] Metro and WAN Ethernet topologies
o 2.3.c [ii] Use of rate-limited WAN ethernet services

3.0 Layer 3 Technologies 40%

3.1 Addressing technologies
• 3.1.a Identify, implement and troubleshoot IPv4 addressing and subnetting
o 3.1.a [i] Address types, VLSM
o 3.1.a [ii] ARP
• 3.1.b Identify, implement and troubleshoot IPv6 addressing and subnetting
o 3.1.b [i] Unicast, multicast
o 3.1.b [ii] EUI-64
o 3.1.b [iii] ND, RS/RA
o 3.1.b [iv] Autoconfig/SLAAC, temporary addresses [RFC4941]
o 3.1.b [v] Global prefix configuration feature
o 3.1.b [vi] DHCP protocol operations
o 3.1.b [vii] SLAAC/DHCPv6 interaction
o 3.1.b [viii] Stateful, stateless DHCPv6
o 3.1.b [ix] DHCPv6 prefix delegation
3.2 Layer 3 multicast
• 3.2.a Troubleshoot reverse path forwarding
o 3.2.a [i] RPF failure
o 3.2.a [ii] RPF failure with tunnel interface
• 3.2.b Implement and troubleshoot IPv4 protocol independent multicast
o 3.2.b [i] PIM dense mode, sparse mode, sparse-dense mode
o 3.2.b [ii] Static RP, auto-RP, BSR
o 3.2.b [iii] BiDirectional PIM
o 3.2.b [iv] Source-specific multicast
o 3.2.b [v] Group to RP mapping
o 3.2.b [vi] Multicast boundary
• 3.2.c Implement and troubleshoot multicast source discovery protocol
o 3.2.c [i] Intra-domain MSDP [anycast RP]
o 3.2.c [ii] SA filter
• 3.2.d Describe IPv6 multicast
o 3.2.d [i] IPv6 multicast addresses
o 3.2.d [ii] PIMv6
3.3 Fundamental routing concepts
• 3.3.a Implement and troubleshoot static routing
• 3.3.b Implement and troubleshoot default routing
• 3.3.c Compare routing protocol types
o 3.3.c [i] Distance vector
o 3.3.c [ii] Link state
o 3.3.c [iii] Path vector
• 3.3.d Implement, optimize and troubleshoot administrative distance
• 3.3.e Implement and troubleshoot passive interface
• 3.3.f Implement and troubleshoot VRF lite
• 3.3.g Implement, optimize and troubleshoot filtering with any routing protocol
• 3.3.h Implement, optimize and troubleshoot redistribution between any routing protocol
• 3.3.i Implement, optimize and troubleshoot manual and auto summarization with any routing protocol
• 3.3.j Implement, optimize and troubleshoot policy-based routing
• 3.3.k Identify and troubleshoot sub-optimal routing
• 3.3.l Implement and troubleshoot bidirectional forwarding detection
• 3.3.m Implement and troubleshoot loop prevention mechanisms
o 3.3.m [i] Route tagging, filtering
o 3.3.m [ii] Split horizon
o 3.3.m [iii] Route poisoning
• 3.3.n Implement and troubleshoot routing protocol authentication
o 3.3.n [i] MD5
o 3.3.n [ii] Key-chain
o 3.3.n [iii] EIGRP HMAC SHA2-256bit
o 3.3.n [iv] OSPFv2 SHA1-196bit
o 3.3.n [v] OSPFv3 IPsec authentication
3.4 RIP [v2 and v6]
• 3.4.a Implement and troubleshoot RIPv2
• 3.4.b Describe RIPv6 [RIPng]
3.5 EIGRP [for IPv4 and IPv6]
• 3.5.a Describe packet types
o 3.5.a [i] Packet types [hello, query, update, and such]
o 3.5.a [ii] Route types [internal, external]
• 3.5.b Implement and troubleshoot neighbor relationship
o 3.5.b [i] Multicast, unicast EIGRP peering
o 3.5.b [ii] OTP point-to-point peering
o 3.5.b [iii] OTP route-reflector peering
o 3.5.b [iv] OTP multiple service providers scenario
• 3.5.c Implement and troubleshoot loop free path selection
o 3.5.c [i] RD, FD, FC, successor, feasible successor
o 3.5.c [ii] Classic metric
o 3.5.c [iii] Wide metric
• 3.5.d Implement and troubleshoot operations
o 3.5.d [i] General operations
o 3.5.d [ii] Topology table, update, query, active, passive
o 3.5.d [iii] Stuck in active
o 3.5.d [iv] Graceful shutdown
• 3.5.e Implement and troubleshoot EIGRP stub
o 3.5.e [i] Stub
o 3.5.e [ii] Leak-map
• 3.5.f Implement and troubleshoot load-balancing
o 3.5.f [i] equal-cost
o 3.5.f [ii] unequal-cost
o 3.5.f [iii] add-path
• 3.5.g Implement EIGRP [multi-address] named mode
o 3.5.g [i] Types of families
o 3.5.g [ii] IPv4 address-family
o 3.5.g [iii] IPv6 address-family
• 3.5.h Implement, troubleshoot and optimize EIGRP convergence and scalability
o 3.5.h [i] Describe fast convergence requirements
o 3.5.h [ii] Control query boundaries
o 3.5.h [iii] IP FRR/fast reroute [single hop]
o 3.5.8 [iv] Summary leak-map
o 3.5.h [v] Summary metric
3.6 OSPF [v2 and v3]
• 3.6.a Describe packet types
o 3.6.a [i] LSA yypes [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9]
o 3.6.a [ii] Route types [N1, N2, E1, E2]
• 3.6.b Implement and troubleshoot neighbor relationship
• 3.6.c Implement and troubleshoot OSPFv3 address-family support
o 3.6.c [i] IPv4 address-family
o 3.6.c [ii] IPv6 address-family
• 3.6.d Implement and troubleshoot network types, area types and router types
o 3.6.d [i] Point-to-point, multipoint, broadcast, non-broadcast
o 3.6.d [ii] LSA types, area type: backbone, normal, transit, stub, NSSA, totally stub
o 3.6.d [iii] Internal router, ABR, ASBR
o 3.6.d [iv] Virtual link
• 3.6.e Implement and troubleshoot path preference
• 3.6.f Implement and troubleshoot operations
o 3.6.f [i] General operations
o 3.6.f [ii] Graceful shutdown
o 3.6.f [iii] GTSM [Generic TTL Security Mechanism]
• 3.6.g Implement, troubleshoot and optimize OSPF convergence and scalability
o 3.6.g [i] Metrics
o 3.6.g [ii] LSA throttling, SPF tuning, fast hello
o 3.6.g [iii] LSA propagation control [area types, ISPF]
o 3.6.g [iv] IP FRR/fast reroute [single hop]
o 3.6.g [v] LFA/loop-free alternative [multi hop]
o 3.6.g [vi] OSPFv3 prefix suppression
3.7 BGP
• 3.7.a Describe, implement and troubleshoot peer relationships
o 3.7.a [i] Peer-group, template
o 3.7.a [ii] Active, passive
o 3.7.a [iii] States, timers
o 3.7.a [iv] Dynamic neighbors
• 3.7.b Implement and troubleshoot IBGP and EBGP
o 3.7.b [i] EBGP, IBGP
o 3.7.b [ii] 4 bytes AS number
o 3.7.b [iii] Private AS
• 3.7.c Explain attributes and best-path selection
• 3.7.d Implement, optimize and troubleshoot routing policies
o 3.7.d [i] Attribute manipulation
o 3.7.d [ii] Conditional advertisement
o 3.7.d [iii] Outbound route filtering
o 3.7.d [iv] Communities, extended communities
o 3.7.d [v] Multi-homing
• 3.7.e Implement and troubleshoot scalability
o 3.7.e [i] Route-reflector, cluster
o 3.7.e [ii] Confederations
o 3.7.e [iii] Aggregation, AS set
• 3.7.f Implement and troubleshoot multiproctocol BGP
o 3.7.f [i] IPv4, IPv6, VPN address-family
• 3.7.g Implement and troubleshoot AS path manipulations
o 3.7.g [i] Local AS, allow AS in, remove private AS
o 3.7.g [ii] Prepend
o 3.7.g [iii] Regexp
• 3.7.h Implement and troubleshoot other features
o 3.7.h [i] Multipath
o 3.7.h [ii] BGP synchronization
o 3.7.h [iii] Soft reconfiguration, route refresh
• 3.7.i Describe BGP fast convergence features
o 3.7.i [i] Prefix independent convergence
o 3.7.i [ii] Add-path
o 3.7.i [iii] Next-hop address tracking
3.8 ISIS [for IPv4 and IPv6]
• 3.8.a Describe basic ISIS network
o 3.8.a [i] Single area, single topology
• 3.8.b Describe neighbor relationship
• 3.8.c Describe network types, levels and router types
o 3.8.c [i] NSAP addressing
o 3.8.c [ii] Point-to-point, broadcast
• 3.8.d Describe operations
• 3.8.e Describe optimization features
o 3.8.e [i] Metrics, wide metric

4.0 VPN Technologies 15%

4.1 Tunneling
• 4.1.a Implement and troubleshoot MPLS operations
o 4.1.a [i] Label stack, LSR, LSP
o 4.1.a [ii] LDP
o 4.1.a [iii] MPLS ping, MPLS traceroute
• 4.1.b Implement and troubleshoot basic MPLS L3VPN
o 4.1.b [i] L3VPN, CE, PE, P
o 4.1.b [ii] Extranet [route leaking]
• 4.1.c Implement and troubleshoot encapsulation
o 4.1.c [i] GRE
o 4.1.c [ii] Dynamic GRE
o 4.1.c [iii] LISP encapsulation principles supporting EIGRP OTP
• 4.1.d Implement and troubleshoot DMVPN [single hub]
o 4.1.d [i] NHRP
o 4.1.d [ii] DMVPN with IPsec using preshared key
o 4.1.d [iii] QoS profile
o 4.1.d [iv] Pre-classify
• 4.1.e Describe IPv6 tunneling techniques
o 4.1.e [i] 6in4, 6to4
o 4.1.e [ii] ISATAP
o 4.1.e [iii] 6RD
o 4.1.e [iv] 6PE/6VPE
• 4.1.g Describe basic layer 2 VPN —wireline
o 4.1.g [i] L2TPv3 general principals
o 4.1.g [ii] ATOM general principals
• 4.1.h Describe basic L2VPN — LAN services
o 4.1.h [i] MPLS-VPLS general principals
o 4.1.h [ii] OTV general principals
4.2 Encryption
• 4.2.a Implement and troubleshoot IPsec with preshared key
o 4.2.a [i] IPv4 site to IPv4 site
o 4.2.a [ii] IPv6 in IPv4 tunnels
o 4.2.a [iii] Virtual tunneling Interface [VTI]
• 4.2.b Describe GET VPN

5.0 Infrastructure Security 5%

5.1 Device security
• 5.1.a Implement and troubleshoot IOS AAA using local database
• 5.1.b Implement and troubleshoot device access control
o 5.1.b [i] Lines [VTY, AUX, console]
o 5.1.b [ii] SNMP
o 5.1.b [iii] Management plane protection
o 5.1.b [iv] Password encryption
• 5.1.c Implement and troubleshoot control plane policing
• 5.1.d Describe device security using IOS AAA with TACACS+ and RADIUS
o 5.1.d [i] AAA with TACACS+ and RADIUS
o 5.1.d [ii] Local privilege authorization fallback
5.2 Network security
• 5.2.a Implement and troubleshoot switch security features
o 5.2.a [i] VACL, PACL
o 5.2.a [ii] Stormcontrol
o 5.2.a [iii] DHCP snooping
o 5.2.a [iv] IP source-guard
o 5.2.a [v] Dynamic ARP inspection
o 5.2.a [vi] port-security
o 5.2.a [vii] Private VLAN
• 5.2.b Implement and troubleshoot router security features
o 5.2.b [i] IPv4 access control lists [standard, extended, time-based]
o 5.2.b [ii] IPv6 traffic filter
o 5.2.b [iii] Unicast reverse path forwarding
• 5.2.c Implement and troubleshoot IPv6 first hop security
o 5.2.c [i] RA guard
o 5.2.c [ii] DHCP guard
o 5.2.c [iii] Binding table
o 5.2.c [iv] Device tracking
o 5.2.c [v] ND inspection/snooping
o 5.2.c [vii] Source guard
o 5.2.c [viii] PACL
• 5.2.d Describe 802.1x
o 5.2.d [i] 802.1x, EAP, RADIUS
o 5.2.d [ii] MAC authentication bypass

6.0 Infrastructure Services 15%

6.1 System management
• 6.1.a Implement and troubleshoot device management
o 6.1.a [i] Console and VTY
o 6.1.a [ii] telnet, HTTP, HTTPS, SSH, SCP
o 6.1.a [iii] [T]FTP
• 6.1.b Implement and troubleshoot SNMP
o 6.1.b [i] v2c, v3
• 6.1.c Implement and troubleshoot logging
o 6.1.c [i] Local logging, syslog, debug, conditional debug
o 6.1.c [ii] Timestamp
6.2 Quality of service
• 6.2.a Implement and troubleshoot end-to-end QoS
o 6.2.a [i] CoS and DSCP mapping
• 6.2.b Implement, optimize and troubleshoot QoS using MQC
o 6.2.b [i] Classification
o 6.2.b [ii] Network based application recognition [NBAR]
o 6.2.b [iii] Marking using IP precedence, DSCP, CoS, ECN
o 6.2.b [iv] Policing, shaping
o 6.2.b [v] Congestion management [queuing]
o 6.2.b [vi] HQoS, sub-rate ethernet link
o 6.2.b [vii] Congestion avoidance [WRED]
• 6.2.c Describe layer 2 QoS
o 6.2.c [i] Queuing, scheduling
o 6.2.c [ii] Classification, marking
6.3 Network services
• 6.3.a Implement and troubleshoot first-hop redundancy protocols
o 6.3.a [i] HSRP, GLBP, VRRP
o 6.3.a [ii] Redundancy using IPv6 RS/RA
• 6.3.b Implement and troubleshoot network time protocol
o 6.3.b [i] NTP master, client, version 3, version 4
o 6.3.b [ii] NTP Authentication
• 6.3.c Implement and troubleshoot IPv4 and IPv6 DHCP
o 6.3.c [i] DHCP client, IOS DHCP server, DHCP relay
o 6.3.c [ii] DHCP options
o 6.3.c [iii] DHCP protocol operations
o 6.3.c [iv] SLAAC/DHCPv6 interaction
o 6.3.c [v] Stateful, stateless DHCPv6
o 6.3.c [vi] DHCPv6 prefix delegation
• 6.3.d Implement and troubleshoot IPv4 network address translation
o 6.3.d [i] Static NAT, dynamic NAT, policy-based NAT, PAT
o 6.3.d [ii] NAT ALG
• 6.3.e Describe IPv6 network address translation
o 6.3.e [i] NAT64
o 6.3.e [ii] NPTv6
6.4 Network optimization
• 6.4.a Implement and troubleshoot IP SLA
o 6.4.a [i] ICMP, UDP, Jitter, VoIP
• 6.4.b Implement and troubleshoot tracking object
o 6.4.b [i] Tracking object, tracking list
o 6.4.b [ii] Tracking different entities [e.g. interfaces, routes, IPSLA, and such]
• 6.4.c Implement and troubleshoot netflow
o 6.4.c [i] Netflow v5, v9
o 6.4.c [ii] Local retrieval
o 6.4.c [iii] Export [configuration only]
• 6.4.d Implement and troubleshoot embedded event manager
o 6.4.d [i] EEM policy using applet
• 6.4.e Identify performance routing [PfR]
o 6.4.e [i] Basic load balancing
o 6.4.e [ii] Voice optimization


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